Pavement LCA Revision History

The current release of the Athena Pavement LCA desktop application is version 2.2.0101 was released in May 2015.

This page contains last-minute product information and will be regularly updated to reflect the most up–to–date state of the known issues with Athena Pavement LCA Version 2.2

For the list of known issues, click here.

What’s New: Changes between versions 2.1 and 2.2

Version 2.2 includes the following enhancements and updates:

  1. Updates to the Canadian manufacturing data for Portland Cement and Portland Lime Cement.
  2. Updates to the Quebec and Ontario Sample Projects and the corresponding Scenario library entries.
  3. Updates to the rigid pavement steel calculator. It is now available from the Roadway design form.
  4. Updates to the Maintenance & Rehabilitation effects calculations
  5. The width value entered for Roundings and Sub-Base roadway design elements is now for the width at the top of the element. Previously the width was defined for the bottom of the element which could result in negative area and volume values could be calculated.
 

Detailed Changes & Issues Addressed

The following software enhancements, updates and fixes have been made in Version 2.2 Build 0101 released in May 2016:

General Changes

  1. Roadway Design - Rigid Pavement - Steel Calculator: a new Excel based tool for calculating the mass of steel used in a roadway has been linked to the Roadway form.
  2. Roadway Design - Roundings & Sub-Base Granular Layers - Width: The width value entered for Roundings and Sub-Base roadway design elements is now for the width at the top of the element. Previously the width was defined for the bottom of the element which could result in negative area and volume values could be calculated.
  3. Sample Projects & Roadway Library: Updated all Ontario and Quebec Sample Projects. Repopulated the database Roadway Library that is used in the "Scenarios" dropdown box in the Roadway Form.
  4. Construction Equipment Record - Primary Fuel Consumption: When editing a Construction Equipment record for Imperial units, the wrong Primary Fuel Consumption value was being calculated. This bug affects both Project level Construction Equipment and the Construction Equipment Library.
  5. Secondary Transportation Effects are being overestimated. There was a bug in the algorithms that calculate the transportation related secondary (pre-combustion) effects.
  6. Construction Equipment Transportation Effects - Hauled Equipment: Energy consumed to float hauled pieces of roadway construction equipment is now calculated only if roadway assemblies are present in a project. This affected both Construction and Maintenance & Rehabilitation life cycle stages.
  7. Construction Equipment Transportation Effects - Self Propelled Equipment: Energy consumed to drive self-propelled pieces of roadway construction equipment that do not transport material was being under estimated. This affected both Construction and Maintenance & Rehabilitation life cycle stages.
  8. Material & Construction Equipment Transportation Effects: Energy consumed to haul material and self-propelled pieces of roadway construction equipment was using the wrong distance factor. This affected both Construction and Maintenance & Rehabilitation life cycle stages.
  9. Material Transportation to Site: Dump truck is now the default piece of equipment used to transport material to site if the material is not linked to a specific piece of equipment that can haul material. This affects both Construction and Maintenance & Rehabilitation life cycle stages.
  10. Rehabilitation - Construction Equipment Operating Energy - Material: The energy consumed by operating construction equipment during rehabilitation activities where material was added or removed was being over estimated.
  11. Rehabilitation - Construction Equipment Operating Energy - No Material: The energy consumed by operating construction equipment where material was neither added nor removed was being under estimated.
  12. Rehabilitation - Construction Equipment Operating Energy - Precombustion Effects: The precombustion effects for the energy consumed by operating construction equipment during rehabilitation activities was being over estimated.
  13. Rehabilitation - Removed Material Transportation Effects: The energy consumed by transporting removed material from the construction site was being underestimated.
  14. HMA Plant Process - Manufacturing Effects: The energy per unit mass of HMA product being consumed by the modelled HMA Plant was updated.
  15. WMA Plant Process - Manufacturing Effects: The energy per unit mass of WMA product being consumed by the modelled WMA Plant was updated.
  16. Roadway Assembly - Manufacturing Transportation Effects: The energy consumed to transport material for roadway assemblies was being over estimated.
  17. User Defined Composite Products - Pavements: User defined products corresponding to Pavement materials were not being properly categorized as Rigid Pavement or Flexible Pavement. This caused wrong supporting materials and quantities to be in the BOM for user defined pavement products.
  18. Summary Measure Reports - Total Primary Energy: The TPE results in Summary Measure reports were being over estimated.
  19. Pavement Vehicle Interaction - IRI : Changed the IRI Imperial base unit to "ft/mi" from "in/mi". For SI, the base unit remains unchanged at "m/km"

Database Updates

  1. Portland Cement : Updated the Canadian data for Portland Cement
  2. Portland Lime Cement : Updated the Canadian data for Portland Lime Cement

 

The following software enhancements, updates and fixes were made in Version 2.1 Build 0102, released in July 2015:

 

Detailed Changes & Issues Addressed

The following software enhancements, updates and fixes have been made in Version 2.1 Build 0102 released in July 2015 (hot fix):

General Changes

  1. Product Library - Update Synchronization: When the product library is saved, all assemblies being modified should be closed for projects that are affected by any product library record updates so that the product library record updates can be applied to the project and assemblies. This behaviour was not happening properly.
  2. Product Library Record - Component Contribution Type: When the Component Library Record Component Contribution Type is changed, the component level unit contribution values can change, thereby changing the Product calculated density. The form was not being updated to reflect these changes.

 

The following software enhancements, updates and fixes were made in Version 2.1 Build 0101, released in July 2015:

General Changes

  1. New Name, Same Great Application: In effort to more strongly brand the desktop application and the upcoming web application, the name has been changed from to “Pavement LCA” from the “Impact Estimator for Highways”.
  2. New Online Tutorials: Created a new Pavement LCA Webinars & Tutorials web page.
  3. PVI Effects Disaggregation: In previous versions, the Use Phase Excess Fuel Consumption due to PVI was all lumped into a single bucket. The effects due to Roughness (IRI) and Deflection are now reported separately under the “Use Phase: Excess Fuel Consumption due to PVI” banner.
  4. Project File Size Reduction: the average project file size has been reduced from around 3 MB to 700 kB.
  5. User Defined Slab Length: Users can now set the rigid pavement slab length with values between 0.91m (3 feet) and 30.48m (100 feet). The old value of 4.5m (14.76 feet) is now the default value.
  6. Rigid Pavement Steel Calculator: An Excel file for calculating the Mass of Steel Reinforcement has been included with the application to simplify the calculation of the steel reinforcement mass that is an optional input on the Roadway Assembly form.
  7. Resource Use Report: Updated the "Resource Use" report sort order to be alphabetical
  8. Primer Coat: A material quantity calculation error was corrected for the Primer Coat material.
  9. Tack Coat: A material quantity calculation error was corrected for the Tack Coat material.
  10. Rehabilitation Schedule Activity Record: Corrected some display and calculation errors for the "Quantity" and "Width" calculated fields. Added "Skip All" and "Skip None" buttons to make it easier to enter the M&R information.
  11. Product Library - Update Synchronization: Improved the effectiveness of inheriting Product Library changes into active projects, their assemblies and any open reports.

US Regions

  1. Added new US regions for US Average, California and Illinois.
  2. Added 2 new sample projects and corresponding Roadway Assembly Library records for California Roadway Designs.
  3. Added 2 new sample projects and corresponding Roadway Assembly Library records for Illinois Roadway Designs.
  4. Added 4 new sample projects and corresponding Roadway Assembly Library records for US Average Roadway Designs.
  5. Added NRMCA 3000 psi and 4000 psi benchmark Concrete Mix Designs were added to the database Product Library.

Database Updates

  1. Portland Cement : Updated the US data for Portland Cement
  2. Slag Cement : Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag was been renamed as Slag Cement, the US data was updated. Slag Cement replaces all other Slag SCMs in User Defined Composite Product Library records (when the application launches) and in legacy projects (when loaded into the application). The list of retired Slag SCMs include the following:
    • Air-Cooled Blast-Furnace Slag - Crushed
    • Air-Cooled Blast-Furnace Slag - Not Crushed
    • Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag
    • Granulated Nickel Slag
    • Granulated Steel Slag
  3. Asphalt Patching : Added Asphalt Patching as a new Activity Type. Previously, in order to model Asphalt Patching, HMA Full or Partial Depth Reclamation had to be used with most Activities skipped
  4. New Plant Process : Ready Mix Concrete Plant Process : A new Ready Mix Concrete Plant Process record was added. Users now have the option of adding this record to their user defined concrete mix designs in their user defined Product Library. By default, if no process record is added to user defined Product, surrogate values that approximate manufacturing energy are used for HMA, WMA and Concrete Pavement material types.
  5. New Material: NRMCA 3000 psi benchmark Concrete Mix Design: Added the "Concrete Benchmark 4000 psi" Concrete Mix Design to the database Product Library.
  6. New Material: NRMCA 4000 psi benchmark Concrete Mix Design: Added the "Concrete Benchmark 4000 psi" Concrete Mix Design to the database Product Library.
  7. New Material: Concrete Optimized for US Flyash : Added the "Concrete Optimized for US Flyash" Concrete Mix Design to the database Product Library.
  8. New Material: HMA PG-64-22 : Added the "HMA PG-64-22" HMA Mix Design to the database Product Library.
  9. New Material: HMA PG-70-62 : Added the "HMA PG-70-62" HMA Mix Design to the database Product Library.

 


 

The current release of the Impact Estimator for Highways is version 2.0.0110 was released in February 2015.

Changes & Issues Addressed in Version 2.0.0110

The following software enhancements, updates and fixes have been made in Version 2.0, Build 0110, released in February 2015:

General Changes

  1. Roadway Form - PVI Tab : Corrected the SI to Imperial conversion calculation for the Top Layer Density value.
  2. PVI Deflection Effects : There was a bug in how the projected fuel consumption due to deflection was being calculated. The resulting values were lower than expected causing deflection effects to be overshadowed by roughness effects.
  3. PVI Roughness Effects : There was a bug that caused the vehicle specific percent fuel consumption increase due to unit increase in roughness to not get updated properly. This bug may have yielded negative results.
  4. PVI Roughness Effects : The calculation for vehicle specific percent fuel consumption increase per unit increase in roughness during a specific time segment was updated.
  5. Maintenance Life Cycle Stage Effects : Effects due to municipal sanitary landfill processes for materials sent to landfill during the Maintenance life cycle stage were being over estimated.
  6. Assembly Group Next and Previous Buttons : With an assembly node or an assembly group node selected in the tree view and a report form active in the main panel, an unhandled exception error was being displayed when either of the Previous or Next buttons was clicked.
  7. Roadway Form - Resizing issues when change tabs : When a user changes tabs on the Roadway form, the form resizes to match the minimum required dimensions of each tab. If the user has resized the form to be larger in width or length than the default minimum values, the form should be resized in the length or width only if the default value is larger than the corresponding form current value.
  8. Project Form - Project Name : On General Tab of the Project form, the input field for the Project Name was too short and was hard to read. The length of this input field has been increased to make project names more easily readable.
  9. Pascal per Bar Conversion Factor : Corrected the conversion factor for Pascals per Bars to 100,000 from 10,000
  10. Tonnes per Ton Conversion Factor : Updated the conversion factor for Tonnes per Short Ton to 0.90718474 from 0.90703

Database Updates

  1. End of Life : Corrected end of life handling of aggregates, supplementary cementitous materials (SCMs), binders, and concrete additive materials.

 


 

What’s New: Changes between versions 1.0 and 2.0

Version 2.0, Build 0108 was released in December 2014.

Version 2.0 includes the following enhancements and updates:

  1. TRACI 2.1: The US EPA issued a new version of its TRACI impact characterization methodology in 2012 and this new version of our software now supports the new methods and equivalency measures advocated by the EPA
  2. The Composite Products Library module was overhauled to be more intuitive, and to improve the user experience.
  3. PVI Generation II: The Pavement Vehicle Interaction (PVI) module is based on the latest research and model from the Concrete Sustainability Hub at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), "PVI Mechanistic Model Gen II", Dr. Arghavan Louhghalam, in collaboration with Mehdi Akbarian and Prof. Franz-Josef Ulm. December 2013
  4. Addition of 48 new sample projects and corresponding Roadway Assembly Library records for Southern Quebec (Montreal) Roadway Designs.
  5. Added 48 new sample projects and corresponding Roadway Assembly Library records for Northern Quebec (Quebec City) Roadway Designs.
  6. Updated purchased electricity profiles on a regional, national and North American inter-tie level
  7. Updated transportation by truck profiles
 

Detailed Changes & Issues Addressed

General Changes

  1. Modal Transportation: UUpdated transportation by truck profiles which are now broken down into short haul (distance <= 200 km) and long haul (distance > 200 km)
  2. Fuel Production for Long Haul and Short Haul Diesel: Fuel Production LCI data was updated for transportation by road, which is now broken down into long haul (distance > 200 km) and short haul (distance <= 200 km)
  3. Fuel Production for Gasoline: Fuel production LCI data for Gasoline was updated
  4. Electricity 2012 Updates: Updated purchased electricity profiles on a regional, national and North American inter-tie level with 2012 data
  5. Selected Tree Node on Project Close: When a project is closed the application root node is automatically selected. Users are expecting the next available project tree node to be selected. This behaviour has been modified.
  6. Select Material from Database: Fixed bug in the Select Material from Database form that was incorrectly filtering out materials.

 

TRACI 2.1

The US EPA issued a new version of its TRACI impact characterization methodology in 2012 and this new version of our software now supports the new methods and equivalency measures advocated by the EPA. Changes include the following:

  1. New Release Compartment: Acidification Water on an SO2 equivalent basis. This compartment is added to the Air compartment when calculating the Acidification Potential values.
  2. Reports – Summary Measure – Acidification Air: The US EPA TRACI Acidification Air measure has been changed to an SO2 equivalent basis. Acidification Air is now presented as "Acidification Potential (kg SO2 eq)" instead of "Acidification Potential (H+ moles eq)"
  3. Reports – Summary Measure – Human Health Criteria: The US EPA TRACI HH Criteria measure has been changed to a PM2.5 equivalent basis. HH Criteria is now presented as "HH Criteria (kg PM2.5 eq)" instead of "HH Respiratory Effects Potential (kg PM10 eq)"

 

Composite Product Updates

  1. The Composite Products Library module was overhauled to be more intuitive, and to improve the user experience. For a composite product, users can now confidently enter component contribution by %Weight, % Volume or on a Unit Quantity basis in either SI or Imperial units.
  2. The Composite Product Library Conflict Resolution module was updated to better assist users with resolving Composite Product Library record conflicts as they arise when a Project file is loading. Differences between Library and Project data are now clearly highlighted.

 

PVI Generation II

The Pavement Vehicle Interaction (PVI) module is based on the latest research and model from the Concrete Sustainability Hub at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), "PVI Mechanistic Model Gen II", Dr. Arghavan Louhghalam, in collaboration with Mehdi Akbarian and Prof. Franz-Josef Ulm. December 2013 (http://cshub.mit.edu/).

The calculated PVI is a function of roadway deflection and surface roughness, both of which depend on the make-up of the top layer of pavement on a given roadway surface. The model demonstrates the possible increase in vehicle fuel consumption and related effects associated with the pavement performance over time. It does this by contrasting the pavement’s roughness and deflection over time relative to a theoretical rigid and smooth roadway; thereby, focusing on the effect of the pavement’s performance not the life cycle vehicle effects.

GEN II improves on the PVI model by accounting for the impact of temperature and vehicle speed on fuel consumption. Using average fuel consumption for passenger vehicles and trucks (AADT(T)), it then models the influence of progressive increases in roughness and deflection of the roadway’s top layer over time (between major rehabilitations) and interprets the calculated decline in performance as increased vehicle fuel use due to the pavement.

 

Sample Projects & Roadway Assembly Library Updates

  1. Added 48 new sample projects and corresponding Roadway Assembly Library records for Southern Quebec (Montreal) Roadway Designs.
  2. Added 48 new sample projects and corresponding Roadway Assembly Library records for Northern Quebec (Quebec City) Roadway Designs.

 

Database Updates

  1. Electricity Profiles: Updated purchased electricity profiles on a regional, national and North American inter-tie level with 2012 data.
  2. Non-Hydro Renewable: Added new Energy Group Non-Hydro Renewable to permit reporting of non-hydro contributions to renewable energy consumption.
  3. Tidal Energy: Added Tidal Energy to the list of supported Energy Sources.
  4. Hydro Electricity Emissions to Air: Added non-zero GWP factors for Hydro Electricity.
  5. Gasoline Fuel Production Emissions: Corrected Gasoline production emissions values.
  6. Composite Product Manufacturing Data: Updated all Composite Products level Manufacturing Energy Consumption, Raw Material, and related Emissions data for so that they are zero. Manufacturing Effects for Composite Products are calculated at the Component level in addition to Composite Product specific manufacturing process data.
  7. Composite Products: Added new composite product records for materials used in the new Quebec Roadway Design sample projects.
  8. Solid Waste to Landfill: Added land emission to permit reporting on the mass of solid waste sent to landfill.
  9. Sanitary Landfill Process – Municipal Waste: Added new end of life sanitary landfill process for municipal waste to permit reporting on the effects due to interring municipal waste in a sanitary landfill.

 

 
 
 
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